The Bible–Confusion, Controversy, and Clarification–Part 7

Here’s some more info on confusing terms associated with the Bible. This one is a continuation of the last one dealing with Israel, Egypt, and the Exodus.


Secondly, there is evidence of Israel entering Canaan around 1400 BC. There’s something called the Amarna Letters which referred to the conquest of Canaan by “Habiru,” which some scholars think is a term used for Hebrew people throughout the Middle East. What is recorded in these matches the biblical record. A second piece of evidence is the Merneptah Stele, a commemorative stone that records an attack in Canaan by a pharaoh in 1209 B.C. It mentions Israel as part of the settled population of Canaan and implies that Israel was the dominant group in the area. This is an important piece of evidence since it lets us know Israel was established in Canaan and dominant by 1209 B.C.


Another Egyptian monument from around 1400 B.C. describes “nomads of Yahweh” in the specific area mentioned in the Bible for Israel’s 40 years of wandering. Then there is the Ipuwer Papyrus, an Egyptian poem, which describes events that resemble the 10 plagues mentioned in Exodus.


While the Exodus isn’t specifically mentioned in archaeological evidence, the above collection of facts is interesting because it does appear to match the biblical record in a number of ways. At least it adds up to a reasonable argument that can be made.